Rootstock Attributes and Selection
Refine your rootstock selection by reading through the rootstock attributes below. Feel free to contact Nick Dry to discuss rootstock selection, Nick has extensive experience with rootstock selection, performance and management. has extensive knowledge of rootstock performance. For further information on rootstock characteristics visit the Phylloxera and Grape Industry Board website:
V. berlandieri x V. rupestris
140 Ruggeri (140R)
A moderate to high vigour rootstock with excellent drought and salt tolerance. It also has a high resistance to root-knot nematode (RKN) and is therefore a good, slightly lower vigour alternative to Ramsey in sites with potentially damaging RKN populations. It has produced quality outcomes in warm (e.g. Barossa Valley/Mclaren Vale) and hot climates (Riverland). Avoid using in cooler climates and on high potential sites in warm climates as there maybe issues associated with the production of excessive vigour.
1103 Paulsen (1103P)
A moderate to high vigour rootstock with excellent drought and salt tolerance. Its performance in RKN affected soils has been questioned and so this rootstock should be used with some caution in these situations (140R is a good alternative). It has produced quality outcomes in warm (e.g. Barossa Valley/Mclaren Vale) and hot climates (Riverland). It has also performed well on low-moderate vigour potential sights cooler regions such as the Eden Valley and Yarra Valley.
110 Richter (110R)
110 Richter is a moderate vigour rootstock with good salt and drought tolerance. It is particularly well suited to moderate to high potential sites in warm climates (e.g. Barossa Valley/Mclaren Vale) or low-moderate potential sites in cooler climates (e.g. Yarra Valley). The popularity of this rootstock is increasing as growers and vineyard managers become more familiar with its characteristics. It can be a difficult rootstock to grow in a nursery situation which can lead to short-falls on orders.
99 Richter (99R)
This rootstock is moderate to vigorous in growth. It has a degree of drought and salt tolerance but less than 1140R, 1103P and 110R. It has been widely planted in Victoria, but its popularity has declined in favour of the other V. berlandieri X V. rupestris rootstocks.
A rootstock that imparts high vigour and productivity it has excellent drought, salt and nematode tolerance. An excellent rootstock for hot regions and its drought tolerance can be exploited to help minimise irrigation requirements. It can also perform well in warm climates so long as irrigation is with-held and the sight is limiting. Excessive growth can occur if vines are over-irrigated. This rootstock may also take up higher potassium then other rootstocks which can result in higher pH juice and wine.
V. riparia x V. rupestris
This rootstock is low-moderate in vigour, has some salt tolerance but does not perform well in dry conditions. It is best suited to cooler climates because of its lower vigour and short vegetative cycle, but has been planted with success in warm-hot climates so long as there is adequate water, moderate to deep loamy sand and fine textured (clay) soils. Because of its poor performance in drought conditions, it should not be planted at sites with limited access to water.
3309 Courderc (3309C)
This rootstock has not been widely planted in Australia as until recently there were not any ‘virus-free’ selections. The rootstock is low-moderate in vigour but may have better performance in dry conditions compared with 101-14. It is well suited to high potential sites in cooler climates. It is one of the most widely planted rootstocks in France and it is expected that use of this rootstock in the cooler regions of Australia will increase significantly over the coming years.
This rootstock imparts moderate-low vigour and good productivity. Because it is not drought tolerant it is best suited to deeper soils where there is access to good quality water. Schwarzmann has been reported to may take up higher levels of potassium which can have negative effect on wine quality. Once a very popular rootstock its use has decreased in favour of 101-14.
V. berlandieri x V. riparia
This rootstock imparts moderate vigour and is best suited to cooler sites on well drained clay/loam soils. It has consistently produced quality outcomes with Cabernet Sauvignon in the Coonawarra, Chardonnay in the Adelaide Hills and Merlot in Wrattonbully. Avoid using this rootstock on sandy soils of warm climates and at sites with saline irrigation.
5BB Kober imparts moderate to high vigour and productivity. It is best suited to cooler sites on well drained clay/loam soils.
SO4 is a moderate vigour rootstock, with broad nematode resistance and peforms well acorss a range of soil-types.