ROOTSTOCK ATTRIBUTES AND SELECTION
V. berlandieri x V. rupestris
140 Ruggeri (140R)
A moderate to high vigour rootstock with excellent drought and salt tolerance. It also has a high resistance to root-knot nematode (RKN) and is therefore a good, slightly lower vigour alternative to Ramsey in sites with potentially damaging RKN populations. It has produced quality outcomes in warm (e.g. Barossa Valley/Mclaren Vale) and hot climates (Riverland). Avoid using in cooler climates and on high potential sites in warm climates as there maybe issues associated with the production of excessive vigour.
1103 Paulsen (1103P)
A moderate to high vigour rootstock with excellent drought and salt tolerance. Its performance in RKN affected soils has been questioned and so this rootstock should be used with some caution in these situations (140R is a good alternative). It has produced quality outcomes in warm (e.g. Barossa Valley/Mclaren Vale) and hot climates (Riverland). It has also performed well on low-moderate vigour potential sights cooler regions such as the Eden Valley and Yarra Valley.
110 Richter (110R)
110 Richter is a moderate vigour rootstock with good salt and drought tolerance. It is particularly well suited to moderate to high potential sites in warm climates (e.g. Barossa Valley/Mclaren Vale) or low-moderate potential sites in cooler climates (e.g. Yarra Valley). The popularity of this rootstock is increasing as growers and vineyard managers become more familiar with its characteristics. It can be a difficult rootstock to grow in a nursery situation which can lead to short-falls on orders.
99 Richter (99R)
This rootstock is moderate to vigorous in growth. It has a degree of drought and salt tolerance but less than 1140R, 1103P and 110R. It has been widely planted in Victoria, but its popularity has declined in favour of the other V. berlandieri X V. rupestris rootstocks.
A rootstock that imparts high vigour and productivity it has excellent drought, salt and nematode tolerance. An excellent rootstock for hot regions and its drought tolerance can be exploited to help minimise irrigation requirements. It can also perform well in warm climates so long as irrigation is with-held and the sight is limiting. Excessive growth can occur if vines are over-irrigated. This rootstock may also take up higher potassium then other rootstocks which can result in higher pH juice and wine.
V. riparia x V. rupestris
This rootstock is low-moderate in vigour, has some salt tolerance but does not perform well in dry conditions. It is best suited to cooler climates because of its lower vigour and short vegetative cycle, but has been planted with success in warm-hot climates so long as there is adequate water, moderate to deep loamy sand and fine textured (clay) soils. Because of its poor performance in drought conditions, it should not be planted at sites with limited access to water.
3309 Courderc (3309C)
This rootstock has not been widely planted in Australia as until recently there were not any ‘virus-free’ selections. The rootstock is low-moderate in vigour but may have better performance in dry conditions compared with 101-14. It is well suited to high potential sites in cooler climates. It is one of the most widely planted rootstocks in France and it is expected that use of this rootstock in the cooler regions of Australia will increase significantly over the coming years.
This rootstock imparts moderate-low vigour and good productivity. Because it is not drought tolerant it is best suited to deeper soils where there is access to good quality water. Schwarzmann has been reported to may take up higher levels of potassium which can have negative effect on wine quality. Once a very popular rootstock its use has decreased in favour of 101-14.
V. berlandieri x V. riparia
This rootstock imparts moderate vigour and is best suited to cooler sites on well drained clay/loam soils. It has consistently produced quality outcomes with Cabernet Sauvignon in the Coonawarra, Chardonnay in the Adelaide Hills and Merlot in Wrattonbully. Avoid using this rootstock on sandy soils of warm climates and at sites with saline irrigation.
5BB Kober imparts moderate to high vigour and productivity. It is best suited to cooler sites on well drained clay/loam soils.
SO4 is a moderate vigour rootstock, with broad nematode resistance and performs well across a range of soil-types.
WE NEEDED VINES
We started Yalumba Nursery in 1975 when we needed to replace vines at our Oxford Landing vineyard in the Riverland. We wanted to replant with grafted vines to help combat nematode and salt problems and get yields back up to sustainable levels. Finding quality grafted vine material proved difficult, so we decided to do it ourselves. With that decision Yalumba Nursery was borne. The Yalumba Nursery was first established on the winery grounds in Angaston, moving into a purpose-built facility in 2001. Initially the nursery only supplied the Yalumba vineyards, however soon our growers were asking for our vines and by 1982 Yalumba Nursery was supplying vines commercially.
It was around about this time that Yalumba Nursery began its variety and clone importation and selection programme. In the first 10 years of the programme Yalumba Nursery imported and evaluated many, many varieties and there were many, many failures (!), but there have been some obvious success stories including Viognier and the Chardonnay and Pinot Noir Bernard clones from Burgundy. It was also during the 1980s that Yalumba Nursery - with the support of the CSIRO - pioneered the hot-water treatment of grafting material and vines and as a result Australia can lay claim to having some of the world's healthiest planting material free of damaging pathogens such as Crown Gall.
By the late 1980s and early 1990s the Yalumba Nursery embarked on an industry initiative to develop a vine quality accreditation scheme. Written together with the Orlando Nursery at Jacobs Creek, the base accreditation became the fundamental document generated by the Australian Vine Improvement Association (AVIA). Interestingly most of the specifications within this document today remain the same as in our original draft.
During the 1990’s the Yalumba Nursery grew rapidly in-line with the Australian wine industry and it became apparent that the facilities at the Angaston winery were no longer able to support the business and so the decision was made to invest in new facilities at the current site in Nuriootpa. The aim of the project was to build a state of the art vine production facility and after 12 months of construction this was achieved with the facilities officially opened in September 2001. By 2017, the nursery had once again outgrown its capacity and at the beginning of 2018 a new expansion project was initiated with the construction of an additional processing shed, a new greenhouse system and an expansion of our cool room. The opportunity was taken to completely separate propagation from planting and processing, by enclosing the area in which grafting occurs and creating a temperature controlled, secluded environment to increase hygiene practices and decrease risk of infection. The construction of a new laboratory has also occurred and there are exciting prospects on the horizon for Yalumba Nursery.
EXCLUSIVE ENTAV-INRA® AGREEMENT
In 2002 the Yalumba Nursery and ENTAV-INRA® signed a 20 year agreement to exclusively propagate and distribute the leading varieties and clones currently available in France. ENTAV-INRA® have the largest repository of clonal material in the world. They have been consistently at the cutting edge of clonal selection and virus identification and elimination. Their focus has been on authenticity and the production of material for high quality winemaking.
In 2004 Yalumba Nursery set-up a small-lot winemaking trial evaluating Shiraz clones selected from old vineyards across the Barossa and Eden Valley. This trial has led to the release of four new clone selections; two from the Barossa Valley (BVOVS5 and BVOVS10) and two from Eden Valley (EVOVS3 and EVOVS12). These clones have since been widely planted are adding complexity and diversity to modern wine styles.
In 2007 Yalumba Nursery moved into the table grape market with an agreement with International Fruit Genetics (IFG) to propagate premium table grape varieties for the Australian market. Exciting new varieties such as Sweet Celebration, Sweet Sapphire and Jack's Salute are now available (under contract) to tablegrape growers.
Yalumba Nursery is committed to providing the Australian wine industry with high quality planting material so that the we can continue to thrive in the increasingly competitive global wine market. With the new expansion and the introduction of a technical officer position, we aim to further enhance the quality of our product and invest in new ideas and development opportunities.